Carbon and Nitrogen Mass Balance in Some Landfill Models for Sustainability Assessment (12 pt)

Rbbbbb Cxxxxxx1 and Rxxxxx Raaaa2

 

1IMAGE,University of Padua, via Loredan, 20, 35131 Padova, Italy

2Spinoff S.r.l., via Beato Pellegrino n. 23, 35137 Padova Italy

 

[The full paper should not be more than 2 pages and use 10 pt Times New Roman fonts for body(with referencing). The full paper must contain title name, author name, contact no. and address, introduction, methodology, results and discussion, conclusion and references as like the example. (the points introduction, methodology, results and discussion, conclusion are need not to be shown in full paper) just follow the sequences and write throughly ]

“Sustainability” idea is present in the history of the humanity since its origin. In 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development defined “Sustainable Development” as a development “which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED, 1987). Waste and landfill problems should be managed keeping in mind this concept. Current regulations in Europe set in at least 30 years the duration of the aftercare of a municipal solid waste landfill. But actual sequences of operative management of a landfill and waterproof coverage commanded by the same regulations do not guarantee to reach limits fixed by the law regarding environmental emissions within this period of time. Concept of “sustainability” of a landfill concerns exactly this subject: it’s not morally acceptable to leave to future generations a high pollution potential site, without economic coverage to manage it.

 

Figure 1. Comparison between the sustainable landfill model (tolerable emission within 30 years) and a traditional landfill scenario

In the IMAGE department, University of Padova, some tests have been planned to apply a mass balance model in a small scale. Four Plexiglas columns have been filled with mechanically pre-treated waste, coming from Legnago (VR) landfill. Each column contained about 27 kg of waste, and was kept at a controlled temperature of 35°C, to simulate in a better way a real landfill situation. System allows to confer distilled water to simulate rainfall, and to extract produced leachate. It’s also possible to introduce external air, with monitored capacity, and to measure composition and volume of output gas, collected by specific envelopes. Collecting efficiency of leachate and landfill gas can be considered of 100%.

 

In the IMAGE department, University of Padova, some tests have been planned to apply a mass balance model in a small scale. Four Plexiglas columns have been filled with mechanically pre-treated waste, coming from Legnago (VR) landfill. Each column contained about 27 kg of waste, and was kept at a controlled temperature of 35°C, to simulate in a better way a real landfill situation. System allows to confer distilled water to simulate rainfall, and to extract produced leachate. It’s also possible to introduce external air, with monitored capacity, and to measure composition and volume of output gas, collected by specific envelopes. Collecting efficiency of leachate and landfill gas can be considered of 100%. Entire duration of tests was 174 days. Columns were managed according to four different landfill scenarios, reported in Figure 2.Aerobic phase was simulated through continuous input of external air of 5 Nl/h; for the semiaerobic phase the air introduced is 1 Nl/h. To simulate the average rainfall in Padova, 800 ml of water a week were introduced into each column.

 

Mass balance seems to be a very useful tool to evaluate long term impact of a waste landfill. Together we tabbed removal and transformation percentages concerning carbon and nitrogen in the four columns used for the tests.

 

Table 1. Generation of MSW

 

Year Generation (tons/day)   Generation Rate

(kg/capita/day)

2004 495 0.432
2005 520 0.456
2006 545 0.467

 

Mass balance seems to be a very useful tool to evaluate long term impact of a waste landfill. Together we tabbed removal and transformation percentages concerning carbon and nitrogen in the four columns used for the tests.

 

In the IMAGE department, University of Padova, some tests have been planned to apply a mass balance model in a small scale. Collecting efficiency of leachate and landfill gas can be considered of 100%. In the IMAGE department, University of Padova, some tests have been planned to apply a mass balance model in a small scale. Four Plexiglas columns have been filled with mechanically pre-treated waste, coming from Legnago (VR) landfill. Each column contained about 27 kg of waste, and was kept at a controlled temperature of 35°C, to simulate in a better way a real landfill situation. System allows to confer distilled water to simulate rainfall, and to extract produced leachate. It’s also possible to introduce external air, with monitored capacity, and to measure composition and volume of output gas, collected by specific envelopes. Collecting efficiency of leachate and landfill gas can be considered.

 

Reference: (must use 9 pt Times New Roman fonts as example below)

In the text, author’s last name should be followed by the number of reference; e.g. “it has been demonstrated by Karim et al. [1] that …” or “Anwar [4] reported that …”. In the list of references, arrange references according to chronological order (i.e., [1], [2], [3],  ). Keep 6 pt spacing after each reference. When two or more references by the same author are listed, the earlier work should appear first. All references must be cited in the text.

 

Example:

  • Karim, M.R., Miah, M.K., Osman, M.S., Saha, G.C., Islam, S.M.A., Hoque. M.M, Hasan, Z. and Raza, M.R., Impact of climate induced disaster in some coastal areas of Bangladesh, in Proceeding of 1st Seminar on Climate Change Impact and Adaptation, pp. 148-167, 2012.
  • Islam, M.N., Islam, M. K. and Rahman, M.M., Notes for the preparation of full papers. Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Asian and Pacific Coasts, Jeju, Korea, pp. 1-3, 2005.
  • Name of the author(s), Title of paper (if available), Organization, URL Link, (1 April 1999). url link (Website)
  • Anwar, S, Title of Dissertation, PhD dissertation, Name of Dept., Name of Univ., City, 1997. (Thesis or Dissertation)
  • Alam, A., Hossain, K., and Taiyab, A., Title of Paper, Name of Journal, 8(4), 20-25, 1999. (Journal)
  • Salam, M.A., Shill, S.K, Ayaz, S.B, and Akter, R, Title of book, 2nd, Publisher, pp. 5-10, 2002. (Book)
  • Kobir, H., and Raza, M.R. Name of Paper, Name of Book, Name of the editor(s) (ed(s).), Publisher, pp. 67-69, 2001. (Book with paper title and editor)

Leave a Reply